Surviving World War III

Alive after the Fall Review

Read alive after the fall to learn how to survive any kind of disaster you may face in the future. You will learn how to live off the grid and how to survive the most horrible scenarios your country may face. What medicine you must have for the emergency? How to find food and how to cook it? Many questions will arise in your head when you face the disaster but this guide will leave you prepared for the worse. The author AlexanderCain explains in details what disease spread in the dark times and what is the must have medicine. Alexander Cain also describes how to secure your car engine against EMP attack, and he teaches you about the most crucial electrical devices. How to save those electronic devices from EMP? The book teaches you how to build faraday cage in less than twenty five minutes to protect electronics from the EMP attack. Alexander also explains methods to prolong the shelf life of your food and medicine. When you read the bonus report you will learn how to survive nuclear attack and chemical attack. In last chapter Alexander explains how to get food and how to cock it without using electricity or gas. More here...

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The author has done a thorough research even about the obscure and minor details related to the subject area. And also facts weren’t just dumped, but presented in an interesting manner.

As a whole, this manual contains everything you need to know about this subject. I would recommend it as a guide for beginners as well as experts and everyone in between.

Jumpstart Liberty Review

The world faces different forms of natural disasters such as earthquakes, volcano blast, and many others. On the other hand, the world might also face man-made disasters such as nuclear war, cold war or even electromagnetic pulse (EMP). In a case of any of the disasters striking, you would love to see your friends and family safe from the danger. These disasters, not only affects the country citizens but also the economy. Therefore, you might need ideas on how to do be safe. That is why you need the Jumpstart Liberty book. It is a well-drafted guide, which gives out vital information on ways in which you can handle yourself, your family and friends, in case of the tough moments ahead. The book is written by Ken White, with a view of helping us access several survival tricks with minimal struggle and problems. This is a fantastic guide that will prove handy in the hour of need. Get a copy today and learn how to face unforeseen occurrences. More here...

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Biological Agents Overview 41 Biological Warfare

The term biological warfare (BW) may cause feelings of terror and horror. The mere threat of a biological attack can be a psychological weapon that could lead to collapse of morale and panic. In biological warfare, biological agents are used to weaken the opposing force. A biological agent is a microorganism that causes disease in humans, plants, or animals or which causes deterioration in material. Normally, the term is used to mean a microorganism or the toxin from a microorganism that produces disease in humans. A biological agent can be used to injure, kill, or weaken soldiers and reduce their ability to fight.

Brief History of the National Health Service

The National Health Service (NHS) is the largest organisation in the UK and the biggest employer in Europe. It took decades before any consensus between doctors and politicians could be made as to how it should be set up and what its requirements were. Before the Second World War there was a large disparity between those receiving good medical care and those who were not. There was a disparity between access to hospitals, specialist doctors and general community medicine. Before 1943 the only free medical care available was in the event of an emergency and only in certain hospitals at that, for example the Royal Free Hospital (hence the term 'free').

And Availability Of Agents

Terrorist weapons may include nuclear devices, radiological material, and chemical and biological agents. This contrasts the likelihood of the materials being used by terrorists with their potential impact. The conventional wisdom is that a nuclear weapon will be very difficult for a terrorist group to acquire however, radioactive material, chemical agents, and biological agents are relatively easy to obtain and thus pose a greater threat.

John T Edsall And Advances In Protein Chemistry

The first volume of Advances in Protein Chemistry appeared in 1944, near the end of the Second World War. The papers it contained were written during the height of the battles, a tour de force considering the difficulty of communications at that time. The following quotations are taken from the Preface of Volume 1

John T Edsall November 3 1902June 12 2002

No brief biography can convey the enormous impact that John Edsall had on the students, scientists, and scholars who crossed his path. He seemed larger than life someone who virtually personified the unselfish search for truth that science is supposed to be. As a researcher, he spent decades applying physical chemistry to proteins, showing, among other things, that proteins bristle with charges. As a person of action during World War II, he and his co-workers learned how to fractionate blood into proteins that can be used in medicine and surgery. As a community leader during the McCarthy era, he stood bravely in defense of the right of Linus Pauling and other scientists to take unpopular political stands this episode is described in my brief biographical sketch on Edsall in Protein Science, 1, 1399-1401 (1992) . As a teacher, he inspired generations of undergraduate and graduate students to become biochemists, bolstered by his example as a gentle, humane scientist and his example that...

Vector Idiosyncrasies

These are wingless hemimetabolous insects that live their entire lives associated either with human hair (Pediculus humanus capitata) or with the human body, where they stay attached to human clothes (Pediculus humanus corporis). When laid, eggs are attached to hairs or clothes. All instars feed exclusively on blood. The insects are sensitive to a decrease in temperature, so the body variety will survive only in conditions where clothes cannot be washed and changed regularly, as is the case following social turmoil and in homeless populations. Only P humanus corporis is incriminated as a vector of louse-borne typhus and louse-borne relapsing fever. The insecticide DDT was actually discovered in World War II in a program to discover novel pediculicides. The Allies were anticipating huge mortality from louse-borne typhus after the invasion of Italy.

Ionization Microwave And Laser Injuries Section I Ionizing And Nonionizing Radiation 21 Introduction

The earth is full of radiation, some natural and some man-made. Radiation is in the air we breathe, the water we drink, and the ground we walk on. Man has added to the natural radiation in the form of medical and dental x-rays, the mining of uranium, and nuclear weapons and power plants. With the increasing use of radiation in all phases of our lives--in peacetime and war--it is essential to understand the fundamentals of radiation and to be prepared to treat the victims of the misuse of radiation or radiation accident.

Bleuler The Concept of Autism

Bleuler's elaboration of autism had a major influence on the conceptualization of schizoidia (including Kretschmer's views). Autism was defined as a detachment from outer reality accompanied by the predominance of inner fantasy life, an unfortunate definition that did not account for apparently extraverted schizophrenics or schizophrenics with obvious paucity of mental life 50 . Autism was considered to be diagnostically pathognomonic for schizophrenia (schizoidia and latent schizophrenia as well), although it was seen as secondary from a pathogenetic point of view. Despite its debatable abstract definition, autism was a central clinical concept of pre-World War II psychiatry. It was not a symptom or sign (Bleuler designated it as a ''complex fundamental symptom''), but rather a generic term indicating a peculiar intersubjective displacement of a patient with schizophrenia, a displacement that could manifest itself in many domains of behaviour, expression, and experience. This notion...

Ten Things Nurses Do That Doctors Hate

When I was a pre-registration house officer (PRHO) in respiratory medicine, I was bleeped near midnight to come to the ward to see one of the elderly patients. I knew the gentleman well, a very pleasant man who used to rivet the bodywork of aircraft together in the Second World War. The nurse had been going around the ward performing the routine observations on all the patients (pulse, blood pressure, temperature, etc.) and had come across this patient flushed and breathless. She related to me over the phone 'he is tachycardic and his blood pressure is up and he is really out of breath. Can you come quickly.'I asked for more information relating to the presence of chest pain, etc. but none was provided, as the questions had not been asked by the bedside. I ran up to the ward to see the patient who looked at me and said 'I don't know what all the fuss is about'. When I explained the nurse was worried as he was out of breath and his heart was pounding away

Diagnosis and Classification of Phobias and Other Anxiety Disorders Quite Different Categories or Just One Dimension

Phobias achieved a separate diagnostic status in psychiatric classifications soon after the Second World War, probably because of their frequent occurrence in soldiers at the battlefront. One of the main questions regarding their classification is related to a major issue among nosologists nowadays, at least for some classes of mental disorders such as anxiety disorders are they better represented by diagnostic categories or dimensions

Childhood Depression Some Unresolved Research Questions

Depression in children and adolescents has received increasing attention over the last 20 years. The number of published research and clinical articles has grown exponentially and nothing indicates that this trend is abating. As pointed out by Richard Harrington, much of this trend reflects changes in psychiatric research in general, with an increased emphasis on direct interviewing of subjects (including children) with standardized procedures, and on the use of symptom-oriented approaches to child psychiatric diagnoses. However, there is also the possibility that the growing focus on affective disorders amongst youth reflected a genuine increase in the incidence of these conditions. Careful reviews of the adult epidemiological literature have concluded that lifetime rates of depressive disorders have increased for birth cohorts born in the post-Second World War era 1 . Furthermore, a decreasing age of onset was simultaneously reported, meaning that depression now appears not only...

Types Of Biological Agents

Toxins are chemical compounds of biological origin. Their origin and their ability to affect the human immune system separate them from other poisons. The advent of biotechnology has changed the magnitude of the toxin threat. Toxins that are only available in small amounts in nature can be produced in large quantities using bioengineering techniques. Bioengineering may also allow subtle changes in the toxins that do not alter their toxic properties but decreases the body's natural ability to neutralize the toxins. The ability to produce large quantities of toxins, the ability to manipulate their structure, and the ability to target them for specific cells have greatly increased their potential as effective biological warfare agents.

Illustrations Of The Treatment Of Uncertainty

12 Monte Carlo methods have been practiced for centuries, but under more generic names such as statistical sampling. The Monte Carlo designation was popularized by early pioneers in the field during World War II because of the similarity of statistical simulation to games of chance and because Monte Carlo (the capital of Monaco) was a well known center for gambling and similar pursuits. For further information about the history, development, and use of Monte Carlo simulation methods, see http mc node1.html.

Luis H Toledo Pereyra

More than fifty years have passed since the original work of Victor E. Frankl (1905-1997), Ein Psycholog erlebt das Konzentrationslager, came to light in Austria. Approximately a decade later, it was published in the United States under the title of Man's Search for Meaning. In it, the internationally respected psychiatrist, Frankl, described his horrific experiences in Auschwitz during World War II and constructed his extraordinary thesis on finding meaning in suffering. His discovery did not end at this point he introduced the school of logotherapy, which focused on the meaning of human existence and on man's search for such meaning.1 So how can a surgeon or surgeon-scientist directly apply Frankl's theories to his or her frame of reference A surgeon needs to examine and extrapolate Frankl's theory to a surgeon's commitment and dedication in his or her daily living. Let me explain my supposition.

Section I Characteristicsgeneral Findings Of Cold Injuries 51 Introduction

Cold injury occurs sporadically among the civilian population, but our primary concern is cold injury and its affect on the military forces. Since the days of Xenophon and Alexander of Macedonia, cold injury has been recorded as a problem of military importance. Larrey classically described the role which cold injury played in the defeat of Napoleon's Army in Poland in 1812. The United States had considerable experience with cold injury during World War II. In the US Army, there was a total incidence of 90,535 time-lost injuries which included trench foot and frostbite in ground troops and high altitude frostbite in air crews. In Korea, United States troops experienced more than 9,000 cases of cold injury, chiefly frostbite in ground troops. Over 8,000 of these cases occurred in the winter of 1950-1951.

The European Union and the European Free Trade Association

The responsible institution for Horizontal Legislation concerning GMOs within the EU is Directorate-General XI Environment, Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection. 1 For specific product legislation, the responsibility is shared by other Directorates as follows DG III (Industry) and DG VI (Agriculture). Other Directorates involved in regulation of GMOs are DG VII (Transport) responsible for the safe transport of GMO, and DG XII (Science, Research and Development) and The European Commission Joint Research Centre (Institute for Systems, Informatics and Safety) are responsible for information on research and development of GMOs.

The answer is a Fauci 14e pp 14511455 Massive lifethreatening hemoptysis is 100 cc of blood in 24 h The most common

The answer is d. (Fauci, 14 e, pp 1429-1436.) Persons in certain occupations, such as asbestos mining, shipbuilding, construction, insulation, automobile brake repair, pipe fitting, plumbing, electrical repair, and railroad engine repair are at risk for asbestos exposure. Even persons handling the clothes of the person exposed to asbestos are at risk for asbesto-sis (bystander exposure). Asbestosis means that the patient has developed pulmonary fibrosis, scarring (plaques), and calcification. Asbestosis is a bilateral disease that starts from the bottom of the thorax and works upward, so it is not uncommon for the diaphragm to be involved early on in the disease process. Patients with asbestosis are at risk not only for lung cancer and mesothelioma but also for pharyngeal, gastric, and colon cancers. This patient has clubbing and malignancy must be considered. Farmer's lung results from exposure to moldy hay containing spores. Berylliosis causes bilateral hilar adenopathy...

Toxoplasmosis In Humans

The material from this case is thought to have been destroyed in World War II bombing, and so confirmation of these findings is not possible. Torres (1927) found protozoa in lesions of encephalitis in a 2-day-old infant in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Numerous organisms were seen, but these were thought to be a new species of Encephalitozoon. This patient also had myocarditis and myositis. In the Netherlands, de Lange (1929) found protozoa in sections of the brain of a 4-month-old child that was born with hydrocephalus. These sections were reexamined by Wolf and Cowen, and a lull account was reviewed by Sabin (1942).

Some Unsolved Problems in Childhood Depression A Clinicians View

A review of the literature of psychiatric and behavioural disorders in children and adolescents reveals very clearly that depression and suicidal behaviour belong to those disorders that have increased since the end of the Second World War 1 . Among these increasing disorders are further alcohol and drug abuse, delinquency and obesity.

Early Toxoid Development and

The first reported use of a botulinum toxoid vaccine in humans was achieved by Velikanov in 1934.23 Research intensified during World War II, and methods for preparing alum-precipitated type A and B toxoids for use in animals and humans were developed by Nigg and coworkers in the United States24,25 and by Rice and coworkers in Canada.26-28 Prevot and Brygoo29 produced type C antitoxin in humans by vaccinating with toxoid prepared from toxin extracted from bacterial cells. A bivalent type AB toxoid was developed and produced at Fort Detrick during World War II.30

Julie Loebach Wetherell Prevalence

Furthermore, epidemiological research suggests that the prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is lower in those over 65 than in younger age groups (Blazer, George & Hughes, 1991). As is the case with most cross-sectional comparisons, it is impossible to determine the reason for these differences. It is possibly due to survival biases, in that people who have higher levels of worry are less likely to live to old age, or to cohort differences, given that people who are currently elderly survived World War II and the Great Depression and were typically raised with the values of self-reliance and minimizing or not discussing negative emotions. Older adults may not remember past episodes of worry. It is also possible that over the course of a lifetime, older adults develop wisdom (e.g. develop

Sonja Kotting and Susanne Greschus

During the Second World War, he had contact with persons of the resistance against the Third Riche, such as Graf von Stauffenberg. This put him in great danger and he was probably not arrested because of his important position in the Charite. Under very difficult circumstances, he also continued to operate in air-raid shelters when the Charite was nearly totally destroyed by bombardments. After the Second World War, Sauerbruch's fate was tragic. He had never been able to deal well with his money and, although he had a magnificent income, he put a great financial burden on himself and his family by founding a private clinic in Zurich. Later he suffered from cerebral sclerosis which changed his personality. Unfortunately, the destruction of Sauerbruch's formerly respected genius was seen by the public, as he was kept in his position for political reasons.

Warfare Agents see also Germ warfare

Chemical warfare agents are substances which cause nausea, asphyxia, blindness, paralysis or burns. They may or may not be fatal. The term usually includes defoliants but not smoke. They were first used in the First World War, in the form of chlorine, phosgene and mustard gas. Because of public outrage and because they usually had minimal military efficacy, these agents became banned and though available were not used in the Second World War. However, some of these agents remain stocked and have even been used in recent years. Tear gas continues to be widely available for civilian riot control.

Wound Repair in Aging

Different age groups (20-40 yr) during World War I. However, the type of wound, infectious complications, and the overall young age of the patients diminished the validity of his conclusions. Halasz (29) reported an increase in the incidence of wound dehiscence with age in 3000 patients having undergone duodenal surgery. Again, concurrent morbidity and infectious complications were not recorded. More recently, the majority of studies have found a delay in healing, but less scarring, in the wounds of aged animals and humans relative to their young counterparts (19,20,22,23,30,31).

Historical introduction

There are compounds that can selectively desensitize sensory nerve endings to noxious chemical stimuli without causing local anesthesia Capsaicin is the paradigm of such desensitizing agents. Capsaicin effects last for days and protect against various chemicals With these words, the late Nicholas (Miklos) Jancso opened a new chapter in sensory pharmacology in 1949 1 . It is a misfortune of the scientific world that Jancso chose to publish his seminal observation in his native Hungarian language in the journal Kiserletes Orvostudomany (Experimental Medicine) in the turbulent years following the descent of the Iron Curtain on post-World War Two Europe, and thus this new concept remained ignored for the next two decades.

Dietary Guidelines

Human Needs.6 The decades after World War II were marked by a progression of thinking among nutrition scientists and policymakers from problems of hunger and nutrient adequacy to the role of diet as a controllable risk factor in chronic degenerative conditions such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and cancer that are the leading causes of death in the U.S.7 The dietary goals report attributed these killer diseases to dietary and other life-style factors and established quantitative standards for what was considered to be a more optimum intake of total fat, saturated fatty acids, total carbohydrate, added sugars, cholesterol, sodium, and protein. The report generated much controversy among nutritionists and scientists about the proposed standards and goals.

Generational identity

Considering life roles and other aspects of a woman's mid life in the context of her generational cohort is important. Sociocultural expectations for women have changed dramatically from the experiences of women who are part of the pre-boomer or silent generation (born before and during World War II) to baby boomers (born between 1946 and 1964). Seventy-six and a half million women were born in the USA during that period, creating the largest demographic cohort in the country.26

Isolated Active Ingredient Or Synergistic Activity Within A Complex Mixture

Febrifugines, alkaloids derived from D. febrifuga, were analysed and synthesised during World War II in a program to protect American forces from malaria in the Pacific and other tropical campaigns (Koepfli, 1947). Despite advances in understanding the chemistry of Changshan, the chemists engaged in the research were unable to separate out the nausea that the drugs produced, and the result was that the Changshan-derived antimalarials did not prove viable

Geographic Distribution

Pellagra is endemic in nonindustrialized countries with a high rate of malnutrition where corn constitutes the dietary basis. It predominates in farmers. Epidemics have been described in refugees of Mozambique and Cuba. In 1990 an epidemic in Malawi, affecting approximately 900,000 refugees, was the most extensive since World War II (Int J Epidemiol 1993 22(3) 504-11). The low frequency of pellagra in Mesoamerica may be due, to corn processing with calcium hydroxide before it is consumed in the form of tortillas. This process promotes the liberation of niacin from certain conjugated forms. In the United States pellagra has practically disappeared although it can be observed in chronic alcoholics, the elderly, retarded persons, diabetics, in intestinal malabsorption or people with carcinoid tumors.

Chemical Agents

1 Chlorine was the first chemical used on a large scale in modern warfare. It was used in 1915 in World War I. It is commonly stored at water treatment plants and is also widely used in industry. (1) Early on the morning of March 20 1995, the poisonous gas Sarin, which was developed by Nazi Germany during World War II, was used on subway lines in the very heart of Tokyo. Ten people died from poisoning and over 5,000 people were reported injured. The affected subway lines intersected at Kasumigaseki station, the office quarters of the Tokyo government. Poisonous gas was found on five trains heading for the station and the entire city was thrown into terror and confusion.


Anton Weichselbaum of Vienna first isolated meningococci in 1887. The organisms were obtained from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of six patients with meningitis and were initially named Diplococcus intracellularis meningitidis. The lumbar puncture was introduced by Quincke in 1891 and the major CSF alterations associated with meningitis were well recognized by the turn of the century.4 The first truly significant therapeutic modality for any form of meningitis was developed by Simon Flexner in 1913 and consisted of systemic and intrathecal administration of antimeningococcal antisera raised in horses. Although toxic, antisera therapy reduced the mortality of meningococcal meningitis from approximately 80 to 30 during World War I and for decades thereafter. The first successful account of therapy of meningococcal meningitis with an antimicrobial agent was published in 19377,8 nine patients survived after receiving subcutaneous and intraspinal injections of sulfanilamide and the sole...


The amputee service arose following the Great War when there was a large influx of new amputees. After World War II the service was managed by the Department of Health and Social Security (DHSS) and was fully integrated into the National Health Services (NHS) in 1990 following recommendations in the McColl report. Most DSCs are located in acute hospital sites and there are approximately 45 in the UK. Prostheses and accessories (e.g. stump socks) are provided and maintained at no cost to the patient.


The main area of melioidosis endemicity is Southeast Asia. The disease has also been recognized as endemic to tropical Australia since 1949, possibly introduced by troops returning from endemic areas at the end of the World War II.9 It is estimated that 2000 to 5000 cases occur each year in Thailand,10 while up to 50 cases are diagnosed annually in both Singapore and Australia. In recent years it has become clear that the

Disease In Warfare

Disease has played a very important part in warfare. In most wars, more soldiers died from disease than were killed by enemy action. Usually, these deaths resulted from inadequate sanitation and lack of personal hygiene, not from deliberate enemy planning. There have been a few cases reported in which disease was spread as a military tactic. Dead animals left in water wells and diseased human corpses thrown into a city under siege are two methods in which biological warfare has been conducted in the past. Some reports indicate that Indians in North and South America were given blankets contaminated by smallpox victims in order to spread the disease among local populations. Some reports indicate that biological weapons may have been used in modern wars.


These concerns will be addressed in the balance of this lesson. Hepatitis is the most important infection that attacks the liver and has been recognized as a major health problem since World War II. Hepatitis is a reportable disease in most states, so a pool of statistics is being gathered. It is estimated that at least ten percent of all patients suffer some residual hepatic damage for as long as a year after an attack of viral hepatitis and that at least two percent have hepatic damage persisting even longer. Denmark had a large epidemic of viral hepatitis in the 1940s and this country has had an increase in deaths from chronic disease of the liver in the past fifteen years. The United States has not researched the issue long enough to determine whether or not cirrhosis or other severe degeneration of the liver occurs many years after the acute onset of the disease. Viral hepatitis seems to be most prevalent in low-income areas where there is crowding and limited sanitation....

CHost Factors

In terms of numbers at risk, and independent of geographic origin, Blacks appear to be considerably more vulnerable to frostbite than Caucasians. This has been a consistent observation dating from World War II through Korea and into the present in Alaska. It suggests that Blacks must be particularly vigilant respecting hand and foot care during cold exposure. By training and proper use of protective clothing, the Black soldier can overcome this physiological handicap and serve in cold climates without excessive risk of cold injury.


The answer is d. (Chin, 17 e, pp 374, 543.) The infectious agent for epidemic forms of typhus fever is Rickettsia prowazekii, which is transmitted from person to person by the human body louse, Pediculus humanus corporis. Disruptions of social and economic institutions by war, famine, or natural catastrophes are associated with declining standards of personal hygiene and spread of lice. Even before social and economic recovery after World War II, epidemic typhus was controlled by mass application of DDT powder. This insecticide killed the body lice thus, the transmission cycle was interrupted. Widespread resistance to DDT and lindane now exists, and other products such as permethrin should be used. Effective antibiotic therapy with chloramphenicol and tetracycline was not available until the early 1950s. Anopheles mosquitoes are vectors in the transmission of malaria, not typhus.

Vascular Trauma

Reports of vein grafting were available in the early 20th century however, these techniques were not suitable for the injuries encountered during World War I, in which the amputation rate was noted to be 72.5 . In 1946 DeBakey and Simeone published a review of World War II experiences with vascular surgery. They concluded that ligation was of stern necessity, required to control hemorrhage attempts at vascular repair were superior to ligation and led to an amputation rate of 49 .

History Of Treatment

It is easy enough to attribute these treatments to the physiologic ignorance of the time, although one must question why other medical diseases were not so treated. But if we look at the period of medical treatment of mental disorders since World War I, we find that the ''scientific era'' has been selective in which disorders received scientific, that is, data-based care. During World War I, for example, psychiatrists began to treat post-traumatic stress disorders although they were then called shell-shock. This short-term crisis intervention was quite effective in returning troops to combat. Subsequent to World War I, there began the development of psychiatric units in general hospitals as well as the opening of clinics associated with medical schools and hospitals. Nevertheless, much of the care was hospital based and custodial in nature and pseudoscientific in its approach. The focal infection theory of schizophrenia was popular at that time and involved removing tonsils,...


Dengue is produced by a group B arborvirus, indistinguishable in appearance from the Yellow Fever virus. It is caused by one of four related but antigenically distinct serotypes within the genus flavovirus. It is transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and is endemic in many tropical regions of Asia, the Pacific, Central America and West Africa, with epidemics after severe rainy seasons. The first epidemics were reported in 1779, and a global pandemic began after World War II, particularly in South East Asia. In temperate countries, it is seen only in travellers. Nowadays, it is primarily an urban disease of the tropics, with humans as the primary reservoir. It is the second most important tropical infection after malaria. Two forms of illness are seen.

Biological Effects

Laser radiation should not be confused with ionizing radiation (radiation such as X-rays and gamma rays produce a change in neutral atoms or molecules). The biologic effects of laser radiation are essentially those of visible, ultraviolet, or infrared radiation upon tissues. Radiant intensities typically produced by lasers are as strong as the radiation previously only produced by the sun, nuclear weapons, burning magnesium, or arc lights. This is one of the important properties that make lasers potentially hazardous. Laser radiation which hits biologic tissue will be reflected, transmitted, and or absorbed. The degree to which each of these effects takes place depends on the various properties of the tissue involved. For example, laser radiation is more readily absorbed by darker pigmented tissue and the dark brown or black pigment found in the skin, hair, and retina.

Cultural Factors

One exception to this trend is a report comparing worries, as assessed by the WSR and the PSWQ, in older Japanese Americans and European Americans (Watari & Brodbeck, 2000). In this study, worry was not related to internment status during World War II, but the interned Japanese group reported higher levels of defensiveness on a scale of social desirability. No reliable differences were found between ethnic groups. In both groups, higher levels of worry were associated with poorer self-rated health and poorer perceived financial status.

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